International Relations/Diplomacy
China in the Cyber Domain

China is developing cyber capacities in pursuit of its economic, political and strategic objectives. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of China differs considerably from its Western counterparts in its approach to cyber and network operations. It thinks that cyber and network operations occur in an information domain. Along with the technical aspects of cyber operations, the PLA combines psychological warfare in manipulating public opinion, media warfare and the legal warfare that influences legal arguments to strengthen China’s diplomatic and security position.

China’s New Central Military Commission

China unveiled its new military leadership the day after the 20th Party Congress concluded on October 23. The composition of the new Central Military Commission (CMC), each of whose members is a hand-picked loyalist of Chinese President Xi Jinping, signals Xi Jinping’s firm and absolute grip on the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). It also reveals the Chinese leadership’s continuing emphasis on technology and enhanced attention to China’s south-western borders with India. The latter is in addition to the focus on Taiwan.

China in the Cyber Domain, Major General PK Mallick, VSM, Prints Publications Pvt Ltd. 2022. ISBN:978-93-936740-4-3

Millions of smartphones or computers and their hardware all over the world with made-in-China tags provide a sense that the Dragon country is perhaps one of the most advanced IT-enabled countries. PLA soldiers are safe behind their high-tech Digital Fortress. Most of us have lived in this delusion for so many decades. General PK Mallick not only dispells this myth but also tears into the Chinese Digital Fortress. He brings out that China may have an advantage in hardware production.

Destined for war: Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap? By Graham Allison. New York, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2017. 384pp. ISBN 978-0-544-93527-3

“Let China sleep; when she wakes, she will shake the world.” said Napoleon more than two hundred years ago and quoted by the author in the very first chapter of the book which talked about the rise of China. The author contends that the growth of China will lead to conflict with the USA, an existing superpower, which may result in war. To back his argument the author draws the example from the Peloponnesian War between two Greek states—Sparta, an established power, and Athens, a rising power.

Qin, Hui, 2021. Globalization after the Pandemic: Thoughts on the Coronavirus. Translated by David Own by. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press

During the pandemic, China has pursued a “zero COVID policy,” which has required harsh restrictions on citizens' mobility and freedoms. Well into 2022, the Chinese government is shutting down entire districts, because a few asymptomatic COVID cases were detected.[1] The government has also been willing to bear economic consequences of such strict policies as well. In comparison to countries like the US and the UK, the death toll and case load were reportedly less in China.

China's Cyber Espionage Operations

… India is on the hit list of some very sophisticated cybercriminal groups of attackers … Indian businesses need to take note as Singapore is becoming a significant hotspot for cyberattacks … China’s cyber espionage against Indian security forces, the ISRO, DRDO, BARC, critical information infrastructure etc… calls for extreme vigilance and mitigating actions ...

Kashi Ram Sharma, ‘The Third Birth of Confucius: Reconstructing the Ancient Chinese Philosophy in the Post-Mao China’. New Delhi, Manohar, 2022. 385pp. Rs. 1,995.00

Kashi Ram Sharma, ‘The Third Birth of Confucius: Reconstructing the Ancient Chinese Philosophy in the Post-Mao China’. New Delhi, Manohar, 2022. 385pp. Rs. 1,995.00Confucius has made a remarkable comeback in China. As the author emphasizes, “Confucius and Confucianism is in the blood of every Chinese. It is their DNA.”So the book by a renowned Indian Sinologist with long experience and expertise in the field of Chinese studies, and who has relied on Chinese and other primary sources, on the Chinese sage and philosopher Confucius and his legacies, is very timely and valuable.

The China-Solomon Islands Bilateral Security Pact

In April 2022, China and the Solomon Islands signed a bilateral defence pact. The signing of this deal has caused great distress within Australia and the US, drawing sharp reactions from both the countries. The news of possible pact of this kind broke into the media in the month of March and apprehensions were raised at that time as well.

Emergence of China as a Military Space Power and Ramifications for India’s Security

China’s space programme can be described as a mystery within a maze. The visible elements of the programme include space launch vehicles, launch sites and satellite systems. However, various components of its organisational structure and architecture are shrouded in obscurity. Since the birth of China’s space programme in 1956, its development has mirrored the progress of the nation as a whole.

How has the Growing Rift in Oceania enabled China’s Rise in the Region?

This paper seeks to investigate the factors that allowed China to emerge as a major player in the Oceania. The paper argues that the traditional powers in the region, the ANZUS, have viewed the region predominantly through the geostrategic lens and in the process, have ignored the core concerns of the Pacific States and instead securitized the region driven by their narrow strategic goals, creating a vacuum and a readymade ground for China to step up and assume a gradually increasing influential role in the region with relative ease and without any credible resistance.

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